Shakhrisabz – hometown of Temur where everything somehow or other connected with his name. Here the lord was born and grew up, here his father Amir Taragai and spiritual advisor Shamseddin Kulyol as well as his eldest sons Jakhongir and Omar Sheikh were buried. And the great lord himself believed that here his soul would rise to the throne of Allakh. He even constructed the crypt for himself. But the destiny made arrangements in different way…
Having created the vast state of Movarounnahr and having become an absolute emir, Temur had made Samarkand as his capital. But he always remembered and paid all his possible attention to his small hometown. In essence, Shakhrisabz was the second capital of his empire. The descendant of Temur, the founder of the Great Moguls dynasty Bobur wrote: “Since Kesh was Temur`s bithplace, he made a fantastic job to make a city ” pedestal of throne “.
Ak-Saray Palace is the main governmental building – residence. Construction of the palace started in 1380, but even in 1404 were not completed yet. The lancet arch of this magnificent building had a span of more than 22 meters – the biggest among all Timur`s construction. The entire covering of magnificent glazed tiles dressed its surface, the blue of mosaics and majolica reigned everywhere, where in infinite variety conventionalized ornaments and intricate ligature of inscriptions displayed itself.
In epoch of Temur and Timurids the ensemble construction of the cities was widely spread. Shakhrisabz can be considered as an example of such a construction. The city boasts the ensembles like Dorus-Tilyavat and Dorus-Saodat.
The earliest construction is the Shamseddin Kulyol mausoleum. Sheikh died in 1370 and his grave was hightly thought of. Next to it, there was built a mausoleum of Ulugbek`s descendants called Gumbazi Seidon-Dome of Seids. This small building captivates by elegance of proportions and perfectly made entrace door covered with deep carving.
But Shakhrisabz was not only ” the bottom of throne” of great emir. Long before Temur`s birth, it already had its own historical destiny. First of all it is one of the oldest cities in the world. According to the scientists, Shakhrisabz is 2700 years old, , and it is age of “Eternal city” Rome. In accordance with UNESCO decisions exactly this date in 2002 was celebrated throughout all the civilized world.
Ancient Shakhrisabz arose at the bottom of Zarafshan range, in the valley of Kashkadarya river. In course of centuries, the city had to experience both happy and drama destiny, but it was always full of events.
Occasionally, the city fell into decay, but every time time under various names – Gava, Sugda, Nautaka, Kesh, Shakhrisabz rose again. And it was the same city, as the historical eligibility was preserved.
Here in IV century B.C. the troops of Alexander the Great rested for a while, these places witnessed how Bactrian satrap Bess was captured, who killed Darius III and who proclaimed hismelf as “the king of Asia”. In VII century the city was besieged by the Arabs, and one century later Kesh became the centre of the strong anti-Arabian uprising led by Mukana. When there was no war, the city safely grew up and developed, since its location on the Great Silk Road was perfect.
The medieval author Makhmud ibn Vali wrote: “Kesh- of all the cities of Movarounnahr … is Consider as one of the most beautiful places of the world with an attractive climate. Fileds and open spaces are very beautiful and desired”. We have to agree with the estemeed author. Especially because, at present Shakhrisabz quite justifies its name – “Green city”.